Language

What the issue is

While the lang attribute is used in HTML to indicate the language of the page or parts thereof, XML-based documents, such as SVG or XHTML, should use the xml:lang attribute for this purpose. When xml:lang is missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with the HTML lang attribute in XHTML documents, it can lead to confusion for assistive technologies, affecting the document's accessibility.

What the issue is

Scripted or AJAX-loaded content often fails to include appropriate lang attributes when inserting text or other content into the document dynamically, particularly content in a different language than the main page or application. This failure can impact user understanding due to incorrect language processing by assistive technologies.

What the issue is

Web pages that dynamically update content without refreshing the entire page may fail to adjust the lang attribute to match the new content's language. This scenario can occur in single-page applications, AJAX content updates, or any dynamic content change that involves a language switch not reflected in the document's language settings.

What the issue is

Content that includes words or phrases that require specific phonetic pronunciation or pronunciation guidance without proper annotation can create barriers for users, including those using text-to-speech (TTS) technologies. This may include scientific terms, foreign language words, names, or any content where the pronunciation is not clear from the spelling.

What the issue is

Content that uses language at a level of complexity not suitable for its intended audience can hinder understanding, particularly for users with cognitive disabilities, learning difficulties, or limited proficiency in the language of the content. It also impact situational accessibility where users are busy or have limited capacity to attend to displayed text.

What the issue is

Audio and video content on web pages without corresponding sign language translations pose a significant barrier to accessibility for users who are deaf or hard of hearing and rely on sign language. This includes not providing an equivalent sign language video that communicates the same information as the audio or spoken content.

What the issue is

Words that have multiple pronunciations based on their meaning or context can be difficult to understand for users relying on text-to-speech (TTS) technologies. Without clear pronunciation instructions using the ARIA attributes or similar techniques, TTS technologies might mispronounce words, leading to confusion or misunderstanding of the content.

What the issue is

Web content that uses idiomatic expressions, slang, or jargon without providing explanations can be confusing or inaccessible to users not familiar with that expression. This includes users learning the language or those using assistive technologies, such as translation tools or screen readers, which may not accurately convey the meaning of such expressions.

What the issue is

Language selectors that do not visually or programmatically (through ARIA roles) indicate the currently selected language can confuse or disorient users. This oversight makes it difficult for users, especially those using assistive technologies, to understand which language is currently active or has been selected without encountering the content.