Readability and Understanding content

What the issue is

Using headings (h1, h2, h3, etc.) improperly by skipping levels in the page structure can make it confusing for users who rely on assistive technologies to navigate web content. For example, moving directly from an h1 to an h3 heading without an intervening h2 disrupts the hierarchical structure of a page.

What the issue is

Buttons with text that is too small or lacks sufficient contrast against the button background can be difficult to read for many users. This readability issue can particularly impact users with vision impairments, including those with low vision or color vision deficiencies. Ensuring text within buttons is clearly legible is crucial for all users to identify and understand the function of each button.

What the issue is

Buttons that are inadequately labeled or utilize generic text such as "click here" or "submit" without providing context of the action being performed can significantly reduce accessibility. Users, especially those relying on screen readers, may not understand the purpose of the button or the action it initiates. This lack of clarity can lead to confusion and impede the ability to navigate and use a website effectively.

What the issue is

Links with unclear or non-descriptive text, such as "click here," "more," or simply "link", provide little to no information on the destination of the link or the action it will perform. This practice fails to convey the purpose or relevance of the link, making navigation difficult, especially for those using assistive technologies like screen readers.

What the issue is

While having a descriptive page title is crucial for accessibility, an excessively long or overly complicated title can also pose problems. Titles that are burdened with too many keywords, contain complex jargon, or try to describe too much can be difficult to understand and process, especially for users with cognitive disabilities or those who rely on screen readers. Such titles may be cut off by browsers or screen readers, potentially omitting important information.

What the issue is

Scripted or AJAX-loaded content often fails to include appropriate lang attributes when inserting text or other content into the document dynamically, particularly content in a different language than the main page or application. This failure can impact user understanding due to incorrect language processing by assistive technologies.

What the issue is

Web pages that dynamically update content without refreshing the entire page may fail to adjust the lang attribute to match the new content's language. This scenario can occur in single-page applications, AJAX content updates, or any dynamic content change that involves a language switch not reflected in the document's language settings.

What the issue is

Content that includes words or phrases that require specific phonetic pronunciation or pronunciation guidance without proper annotation can create barriers for users, including those using text-to-speech (TTS) technologies. This may include scientific terms, foreign language words, names, or any content where the pronunciation is not clear from the spelling.

What the issue is

Content that uses language at a level of complexity not suitable for its intended audience can hinder understanding, particularly for users with cognitive disabilities, learning difficulties, or limited proficiency in the language of the content. It also impact situational accessibility where users are busy or have limited capacity to attend to displayed text.